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Medium, Material, and 2-Dimensional Fine Art Work Techniques 👀Before carrying out two-dimensional works of art, it is very important for you to have knowledge and
Asmat tribe is a large tribe that is quite well-known in the Land of Papua. Its existence as a tribe that inhabits the southern coast of Papua is very calculated in the history of the spread of Papuan society. Asmat is so famous because it has an extraordinary value of life, besides that the culture of this tribe is very interesting and unique. One that stands out when talking about this tribe is the result of their carvings which are already well known to foreign countries.
Like life in general, the Asmat also need media to express the things they experience in life. Usually they are told by heroic, mystical or customary rules in the form of certain media. This they do with various objectives, among others as a means of maintaining the continuity of tradition, a means of learning for the next generation, and spiritual reverence for ancestral spirits. For this reason, carvings have become inseparable from the lives of the Asmat and have important significance in various efforts to actualize their lives. However, in modern times, many of them carve not only to actualize life, but also for commodity reasons.
Asmat Carving has its own characteristics when compared to various engravings from other regions. Neat workmanship and intricate carving details are the reasons why the Asmat carvings are famous throughout the world. Motives related to nature, living things and activities of daily life are found in the Asmat engraving. The most common forms are bats, birds of paradise, and fish. While the usual form of activity they make is humans who are fighting, hunting, or fishing, not infrequently they also make reflections on the life activities of the Asmat ancestors. To be sure, this motif or form will not be separated from the lives of the Asmat themselves.
One of the objects of Asmat carvings that are quite popular in the world are the unique panels that are often used as wall hangings. These panels usually have animal carvings or tribal lines typical of the Asmat. This object has become so famous for its uniqueness and ease of being carried over long distances, considering that tourists usually buy panels to be used as souvenirs. The selling price of these panels is not too expensive, for the smallest sized panels generally sold for 200,000-300,000 rupiah. This price is quite reasonable because these panels also have a high level of difficulty in making it.
Besides panels, the types of carvings that are so famous are the Bis Sculpture (ancestral) and Totem. The making of these two objects is closely related to the spiritual life of the Asmat people. For totems, they are usually made from inverted tree trunks. The roots are placed on top because they will use their long roots as a symbol of fertility and must be placed at the top of the totem. Both of these objects are very sacred and are usually placed in places that are also sacred like Jew (Rumah Bujang) or the entrance to the Asmat village.
Although carving is a common art of the Asmat people, not all Asmat people can be carvers. Carving is a skill passed down between generations and is generally only done by men. They usually carve while the women work in the fields. Because carving is a legacy, families who do not have blood engravers usually do not have this ability either. However, for modern Asmat people this ability can be specifically studied. Many Asmat men who have specifically learned how to carve, moreover becoming an engraver can now be made a living.
However, the Asmat Carving is a pride for the Indonesian people. Through this engraving, Indonesia, especially Papua will be increasingly known throughout the world. Therefore, it is the duty of Indonesian citizens to preserve this art so that it can be passed on to the next generation.
More info about Asmat Tribe in Wikipedia
East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) is one of the provinces in Indonesia which is rich in cultural heritage and natural beauty. The province, located in the southeastern part of Indonesia, has several islands, namely Lombok, Flores, Sumba, Komodo, and other islands.
Even though they have different customs, there are similarities among all the tribes spread across the NTT archipelago, namely the traditional cloth. This unique cloth is known as weaving. Weaving itself is known as the activity of making a piece of cloth by inserting horizontal weft in the threads, which are usually, have been tied and dipped into dyes made from roots and trees.
Weaving activities are developed by each tribe in East Nusa Tenggara for generations, for the sake of preserving the art of weaving. Weaving for the people of East Nusa Tenggara is seen as valuable property belonging to high-value families.
For more information about Tenun NTT in Wikipedia
The reason is, in addition to the level of difficulty in the manufacturing process, also a model of weaving motifs produced by weavers. Not surprisingly, the weaving process produces fabric prices that are quite expensive. NTT woven fabrics are sold up to hundreds of millions of rupiah. Even so valuable the results of the work, even though used, a NTT woven fabric seller named Niko still sells woven cloth or clothing at new prices.
Once upon a time, woven fabric was made to meet daily needs, namely as ordinary clothing. But then it developed for customary needs, such as ceremonies, dances, marriages, and parties. Currently, woven cloth is also commonly used as a shawl, sarong, blanket, to clothing.
The people of East Nusa Tenggara are estimated to have existed since 3,500 years ago. The first kingdom of NTT people flourished in the 3rd century AD And since that is expected, local people have known art and culture, one of which is weaving.
According to the production process, woven fabrics in NTT are divided into several types. Namely, ikat, buna, and lotis or sotis or songket.
As the name suggests, weaving has the process of forming a motif by binding the yarn. In NTT, warp threads will be tied and will produce certain motifs. The technique in making woven fabric is by combining yarn lengthwise and transversely.
Meanwhile, the ‘buna’ weaving process is weaving to make patterns or motifs on the fabric using threads that have been colored before, so as to produce motifs with various colors that are so eye-catching.
Lotis weaving or often referred to as songket cloth has a manufacturing process similar to buna weaving, identical to dark basic colors such as black, brown, dark blue, and red heart.
Woven crafters usually use natural dyes such as tauk, noni, turmeric, and other plants. But in modern times, many crafters have also switched to using chemical dyes due to many advantages. Namely, it can speed up the workmanship process, fastness and light, rub resistance, and the color is also varied.
In NTT, weaving motifs can characterize where the wearer is from. Because, in the motifs of weaves are drawn the characteristics of a tribe or island. Motifs on woven cloths are a form of community life and form a close emotional bond with the community. The people of NTT are so proud and happy to use woven fabrics from their tribes, and on the contrary they will be awkward and embarrassed if they use woven cloth from other tribes.
Each kingdom, tribal group, region and island creates a number of distinctive patterns or motifs on the weaving. Then it was revealed by teaching their children and grandchildren so that the preservation of the art of weaving is maintained.
Weaving from East Sumba, for example, has a skull motif. In Maumere, the motifs depict more rain, trees and twigs. Perhaps, the motives were inspired by ancient people who went out of the house and saw the natural surroundings, so that the natural motifs emerged.
In September 2017, woven fabrics from NTT succeeded in packing their wings on the international scene. For the first time weaving from NTT appeared in the solo performance of Couture New York Fashion Week. The beauty of this traditional knitted fabric texture is the work of women craftsmen from NTT under the care of Rumah Pandai, a non-profit institution founded by renowned designer Kanaya Tabitha. The works featured in the event also received a touch of aesthetic design from Julie Sutrisno Laiskodat, who is also a weaving fashion designer from Indonesia.
On February 27-March 6, 2018, Julie managed to bring back woven fabric to a prestigious fashion show in the world, namely Paris Fashion Week 2018 in Paris. Julie with LeVico (her boutique), presented 18 collections of woven clothing that has been modified into NTT winter special clothing from Sabu, Rote, and Alor.
Batik is a pictorial fabric that is typical of Indonesia. There are various kinds of batik motifs from various regions in Indonesia. Even in one area there are many different motives. As in Solo, which is one of the producing cities, there are a variety of batik motifs with different meanings.
Many people make batik for everyday clothing or for more formal events, such as wedding events or for work clothes. Hence, batik cloth is well suited to be used as souvenirs for friends or relatives in your city. But, not many people know the meaning of every batik cloth motif. So, for you who are going on vacation to Solo, you can read the meaning of some of these batik motifs before you buy batik for souvenirs so that it can be tailored to the needs of friends or relatives.
For more information about Batik in Wikipedia
This batik cloth is named kawung batik because its motif is round shaped rather oval like kawung. For those of you who don’t know, kawung is a kind of coconut or often called the fruit and fro. This kawung motif is arranged geometrically and is parallel like a lotus with four petals. The Javanese interpret lotus as a symbol of purity and long life. In the past, this batik motif was only used by office employees. Now many people from all walks of life wear batik cloth for daily wear.
From reliable sources say that the machete batik motif is the oldest batik motif in Indonesia. Machete motifs such as the arrangement of the letter S which are intertwined from high to low and form diagonal lines. This batik motif is given the name of a machete derived from the word ‘pereng’ which means ‘slope’. The S motif is a braid that symbolizes continuity. Whereas the letter S motif itself was taken from the waves which for the Javanese symbolized a spirit that never subsided. In the past, machete batik was used by warriors who would go to war in the hope of returning home to victory. Now, you can see the machete batik cloth that is used as a variety of clothing everywhere. You can give this cloth as a gift to encourage your friends who are struggling to achieve their goals.
The word truntum comes from the term terumum, which means to grow again. So, this cloth symbolizes the blossoming again. Not only for those who are dating, but also for those who are already married. In addition, the word truntum also has the meaning of guide and example. The ones who wear this cloth are usually the parents at their children’s wedding, which are expected to be a good role model for their children.
This fabric is usually black basic. Above, there are small scattered flower motifs resembling Jasmine flowers. Fabric with this motif is already very popular in Java, especially in Solo, which is the city of origin of this fabric. Now, many make this cloth as a shirt or skirt for women. This fabric is perfect if you give it to a friend or relative of your woman who is just engaged, or married.
The Sidomukti batik motif is also a very popular batik motif and is easy to find because of its popularity. Usually used by the bride and groom at a traditional Javanese wedding, especially for the people of Solo.
The word Sidomukti comes from the word sido, which means to be continuous and continuous, and from the word mukti which means a prosperous and prosperous life. Therefore, the bride and groom wear this cloth for their wedding in the hope of having a married life that is always well-off, happy and prosperous. It’s perfect if you give this cloth to your friend who is getting married soon.
This batik motif in ancient times was used by the royal family because this motif is considered sacred. The motifs on this cloth are wing-shaped like an eagle and by the Javanese are interpreted as symbols of the power and power of the king. Batik with this motif is often used also for brides. But, now many also make cloth with this motif for shirts and other types of clothing.
Before carrying out two-dimensional works of art, it is very important for you to have knowledge and understanding of various tools, materials and techniques commonly used in the practice of art work. You can only get to know the character of these materials, tools and techniques with practical activities. Try carrying out activities of appreciation of fine art with an applicative approach. Thus, besides the insight of your appreciation getting richer, your skills in creating fine arts will also be better.
Medium and Material of Fine Art
Artwork material is a consumable material used to realize that art work. In accordance with the diversity of types of works of art, the materials for creating art are also of many kinds and varieties, some of which serve as the main material (medium) and some are as supporting material. For example, artists usually make paintings using canvas and paint as the main material and wood and nails as supporting material. Wood is used as a frame material (spanram) to place the canvas and nails to attach the canvas to the frame’s wooden surface.
Materials for creating fine arts can be categorized into natural materials and synthetic materials based on the source of the ingredients and their processing. Natural raw materials are materials whose basic ingredients come from nature. These materials can be used directly without chemical processing in a factory or industry first. Processed raw materials are natural materials that have been processed through certain industrial or manufacturing processes into new materials that have special characteristics and characteristics. Based on its material properties, this fine art material can also be categorized into hard and soft materials, liquid materials and solid materials and so on.
Tools for creating fine art are of many types and varieties. Some works of art even have special equipment that is not used in other types of works. But there are also devices or materials that are used in almost all processes of creating fine arts. Stationery (drawing), for example, is the equipment used in the process of making almost all types of art, especially when making designs of that art.
In creating two-dimensional art, there are at least several categories of main devices for creating works, namely tools for forming, drawing and coloring and printing devices (duplicating). As well as materials, in addition to the main equipment category, we also know other auxiliary tools, namely tools whose designation is not specifically for visual arts work activities but are indispensable in fine arts work activities such as: cutting tools (knives and scissors), drying devices, measuring devices and so on. These tools are supporting to facilitate or expedite the process of making works.
Due to technological advances, at present all the functions of the devices used in creating visual arts are relatively computer-intensive. Even so, it is important to realize that a computer is only an auxiliary device. Artwork, however, requires sensitivity to taste that is difficult to produce by computer programs. Taste sensitivity is a unique and unique competency that is only possessed by humans, different from one person to another.
Fine Art Work Techniques
In making pure or applied works of art technical skills are needed to use devices and process materials to realize objects in the field of cultivation. For example, to realize an object in a painting, an artist or a painting artist is required to master technical skills using a device (brush) and processing materials (paint) on a canvas (medium). A sculptor is required to master technical skills using sculpting devices and processing wood materials to create sculptural works.
There are also works of art that are named after the main techniques used in its manufacture. Batik art, for example, shows the types of works of art made with batik techniques, as well as weaving crafts, to name the types of works of art made with weaving techniques.
Various types and characteristics of materials used in creating fine arts require various tools and techniques to process them. A technique of creating fine arts might be specifically used as the main technique in realizing one type of art but may also be used to realize another type of art.
© Donny Susanto - 2019
Art material is substances, raw materials or tools used by an artist to create an artwork.
We will provide information, what materials are normally used by an artist in creating their art and also information about new materials which are innovations in the art world.
As we all know, the world is developing very rapidly, as well as in the material world of art.
Knowing the existence of new material in the art world can help artists create more innovative artworks.